Conservation of biological diversity was first highlighted in June of 1972 at the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. Although species extinction is a part of the evolutionary process, species are more threatened today due to human influence. This has considerable implications, not only for the ecosystem, but also for social and economic development (UNEP 1999a). The Convention on Biological Diversity takes a proactive approach to ensure biodiversity, while provided for human needs through sustainable development (Department of the Environment, Sport, and Territories 1997). The Convention also highlights the importance of indigenous peoples on conservation and sustainable developments, in addition to recognizing the need for fair and equitable sharing of benefits from use of genetic resources (UNEP 1999a).
Despite strides made towards the recognition and the role of indigenous people, there is still debate over the ownership of biodiversity and intellectual property rights of profitable genetic resources.
Costa Rica is an example of a country that has bills and laws in place regarding the relationship of indigenous people with natural resources. The country has also set up programs and institutions to promote biodiversity.
I. Key terms associated with the Convention
B. Why conserve?
C. Why a Convention?
D. Traditional knowledge
E. Intellectual property rights
F. Genetic resources
II. Objectives of the Convention
III. Role of indigenous peoples in the Convention
A. Article 8(j)
B. Article 10(c)
C. Article 17.2
D. Article 18.4
V. Indigenous Peoples Biodiversity Network (IPBN)
A. What is IPBN?
B. Interpretation of Article 8(j)
C. Premises to adopt for implementation of Article 8(j) and related provisions
IV. Decisions related to implementation of Article 8(j) and related provisions
V. Convention and Ownership
D. Why not to award property rights
E. Not ratified by U.S.
VI. Example – Costa Rica
B. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad
C. Community example
D. Agreement with Merck
Blum, E. 1993. "Making Biodiversity Profitable." Environment 35(4): 16-
Bhat, M.G. 1999. "On Biodiversity Access, Intellectual Property Rights, and Conservation." Ecological Economics 29: 391-403.
Chacon, R. "Costa Rica - The Rights of Indigenous People to Biodiversity." Earth Council. Available from Internet, http://www.ecouncil.ac.cr/indig/conventio/costric-eng.htm accessed 10 February 2000.
Department of the Environment, Sport, and Territories. 1997. “Convention on Biological Diversity – A Guide.” Available from Internet, http://kaso.erin.gov.au/portifoliio/esd/biodiv/convention.html accessed 10 February 2000.
Earth Council a. "International Legislation." Available from Internet, http://www.ecouncil.ac.cr/indig/conventi/ilo2eng.htm accessed 10 February 2000.
Earth Council b. "Indigenous Peoples and Global Governance: Special Report for Rio+5 Process." Available from Internet, http://www.ecouncil.ac.cr/rio/focus/report/english/worldcon.htm accessed 1 April 2000.
Frisvold, G. B. and P. T. Condon. 1998. "The Convention on Biological Diversity and Agriculture: Implications and Unresolved Debates." World Development 26(4): 551-570.
Indigenous Peoples's Biodiversity Network. "Indigenous Peoples, Indigenous Knowledge and Innovations and the Convention on Biological Diversity." Earth Council. Available from Internet, http://www.ecouncil.ac.cr/indig/conventi/ilo2eng.htm accessed 10 February 2000.
Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad. "Information about INBio." Available from Internet http://www.inbio.ac.cr accessed 28 March 2000.
Lasics, A. C. 1996. "The Intellectual Property Rights to Genetic Resources." Rice University, Houston, Texas.
Newcomer, Q. 1999. "The Monteverde Community: A Whole Greater than Its Parts." Social Education 63(2): 87-88.
Raustiala, K. and D.G. Victor. 1996. "The Future of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Environment 38(4): 16-
Raustiala, K. 1997. "Domestic Institutions and International Regulatory Cooperation Comparative Responses to the Convention on Biological Diversity." World Politics 49(4): 482-509.
Reid, W.V and 7 co-authors. 1994. "Dividing the Dollars - Biodiversity Prospecting: Using Genetic Resources for Sustainable Development." Bioscience 44(8): 563-565.
United Nations Environmental Programme. 1999a. “An Explanatory Leaflet about the Convention on Biological Diversity.” Available from Internet, http://unep.ch/bio/bio-leaf.html accessed 1 March 2000.
United Nations Environmental Programme. 1999b. "Indigenous and Local Communities Knowledge Innovations and Practices - Implementation of Article 8(j) and Related Provisions." Available from Internet, http://www.biodiv.org/indig/index.HTML accessed 1 March 2000.
United Nations Environmental Programme. 1999c. "Implementation of Article 8(j) and Related Provisions." Available from Internet http://www.dainet.de/FIZ-AGRAR/CHMDOC/eng.htm accessed 20 March 2000.
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