GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE 2004

Department of Geology/School of Interdisciplinary Studies

WCP 401/ GLG 401/501

Spring 2004

Miami University

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GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE, Spring 2004

Instructors

Dr. Mark Boardman

boardmmr@miamioh.edu

529-1338

Dr. Hays Cummins

haysc@miamioh.edu

529-1338

 

This plot was generated from data downloaded from NOAA


A view of the Mt. Kilimanjaro volcano Ice core from the Ohio State Byrd Polar Research Center. Quicktime Movie! (~19mb)

Questions the Course Will Address:

  • Is climate changing?
  • How do I measure climate change?
  • What does it matter? What impact will climate change have on me? On life on earth?
  • How fast is climate changing?
  • What can I do about it? Can I do anything about it?
  • Is human activity the cause of climate change?

Course Content:

The course will consist of lectures, discussions, student presentations, exercises (modelling using STELLA), tests, and a final project. Both the presentation (15 minute lecture to the class) and final project (10 page maximum) should include models using STELLA.

Most of the first part of the course will be comprised of lectures by Professors Boardman and Cummins and discussions of the article readings that are assigned. During the second portion of the course each of you will be asked to make a presentation to the class.

Course Meetings:

There will be two 100 minute class meetings per week.

Readings:

The readings we have selected include 1) the most recent, good articles on a subject as well as 2) the classic articles on the subject. We may modify the assigned readings during the course to include late-breaking articles and/or to include remedial articles.

The readings are in our science article database. You must read the articles before each week's meetings. Discussion may occur any time during that week; so be prepared.

Final Project:

The topic of the final paper / project will be chosen in consultation with your professors on the first week of the course! Each team wil consist of two students.

Your Research Will Result in:
  • Leading One Class Discussion Using the Current Literature
  • A group Powerpoint Presentation of Your Research Topic
  • Developing a group Web Page on Your Research Topic
  • An individual research paper that relates to your research topic

    We expect your presentation to be professional. We will speak with each of you regarding your presentation, and we will ask that you confer frequently with us regarding its progress. Use computer-generated graphics, slides, and models. You will have 15 minutes to make your presentation.

    The final project will be due on the Thursday of week 14, and should be no more than 20 pages of text. It should contain adequate references, figures, tables, etc., and it should be typed (double-spaced, readable font, ...).


    Project Topic Grab Bag

  • El Nino---Torandoes, hurricanes, climate
  • Milankovitch Cycles
  • Sea Level
  • Snowball Earth
  • Agriculture
  • Primary Productivity
  • Deforestation
  • Disease
  • Prerequisites:

    Either WCP 221 , WCP 222, GLG 244 or permission of the instructor.

    Evaluation:

  • Your grade in the course will be earned according to the following weighting system:
    Grade Components
    Value
    Quizzes
    10%
    Semester Project
    • Preliminary Presentation + Class Discussion (5%)
    • WWW Postings (idea, proposal, progress reports, and final report) 20%
    • Final Oral Report + powerpoint (10%)
    • Individual Research Papers (15%)
    50%
    Participation (Assignments + Discussion)
    • Reflection Essays (weekly) (15%)
    • Problem Solving, Interpretation and Graphing (15%)
    • Class Discussion Participation (10%)
    40%

    Participation:

    This course includes both lectures and classroom discussion. Class discussions are an important part of this course, and student participation is an important part of the class discussions.

    Students should come to each class prepared to discuss the reading assignments. During a typical class, each student will be called upon to respond to questions and/or to add his/her ideas to the discussion. A log of student "participation" will be kept by the instructors, and this log will be shared with individual students several times during the course; so that students know how they are performing and what is expected of them in terms of participation.

    [Purdue Weather Processor]

     

    Synergy. Two of the tropical Pacific's climate cycles turned warm simultaneously in the early 1980s, fueling the 1982-83 El Niño. From Kerr. R.A. 1999. In North American Climate, a More Local Control. Science 283:1109.


    Books, Articles, Journals, Library Resources

    A Little "Jump Start" for your Presentations and Projects!

    The world's largest bookstore!

    The Library of Congress

    The Current Issue of Scientific American

    Science Magazine

    The Try it, You'll Like It Web Database--Ecology, Global Change and Much More

    There are two main sources of research information on this website: (1) The first is a password protected science article database while (2) the second is a non-password protected Within-Site Search of all of the web pages on this site.

    Search the PDF Science Article Database--Password Protected

    The science article library contains thousands of PDF articles. It is an amazing resource. The database is password protected.

    Search This Website--Open Resource

    There are over 13,000 web pages on my website! There are so many pages that it can be difficult to even know what is here. Many of these web pages are student research articles, complete with literature sources. Use the Within-Site Search Engine to look for past student research work that may aid you in your research! It is not password protected.

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    Other Library Resources

    Miami Link

    Ohio Link Electronic Journals--Amazing Online Resource

    Search the Ohio Link Journal Index

    Earth & Planetary Sciences
    Environmental Sciences
    Physics & Astronomy
    Life Sciences

    Other Cool Library Stuff!

    FIRST SEARCH    Biology Science Citation Index Applied Science & Technology    Environment and Ecology
    AGRICCOLA   Geology    GEOBASE Life Sciences   General Periodicals  

    On 4/20/00, We Visited The Byrd Polar Research Center at Ohio State--We had a magnificent tour of the facility. Large Quicktime Movie! (~50mb)

    A view of the Mt. Kilimanjaro volcano Ice core from the Byrd Polar Research center. Smaller Quicktime Movie! (~19mb)


    Global Climate Change, Spring 2004, Student Research Database

    Student Research Feedback and Peer Review

    The Search for a Project Topic:Let the Fun Begin

    Everyone will be involved in a semester long research project. We expect timely submissions to the Climate Change Project Database. This includes your ideas, proposals, peer review, and progress reports. Postings beyond the due dates (see syllabus) will result in a 10% grade penalty/day.

    This work will require an extensive statement of the topic of interest in combination with an in-depth literature review. The research topic must be integrated with data analysis and interpretation. The report will include actual research data obtained and analyzed from sources on NOAA's World Wide Web Paleoclimate Database (or other sources) as well as the most recent literature sources that address your research interests on global change. The report will take the form of a professional journal article. The report will be presented orally as well at the end of the semester.

    Here is a Research Topic "Jump Start:"

    If you are ready, you can Enter Your Own Research Proposal or Discussion Topic NOW. Or, respond to a particular research submission! Perhaps you have some insights that can help! To do so, browse the works in progress by clicking on the research area of your choice. Then add your response!

    Global Climate Change Research Feedback & Database

    DOWNLOAD the Paper Posting HTML Formating HELP SHEET!

    We also have a GUIDE for depositing articles, images, data, etc in your research folders.

    Global Climate Change Project Entry Forms.......

    Global Climate Change Project Submissions...

    Global Climate Change Progress Reports

     

     

    View Progress Reports & new progress postings.....


    Search the Ecology WWW Database!

    Got Mac OS X 10.2 or Higher?   Download Hays' Sherlock Channel

    Try it, you'll like it!

    Where do we start? This database is an extension of my core interests--look at it as an appendage to these web pages. From severe weather, to hurricanes, satellite imagery, computer modeling, climate change (el nino, greenhouse warming), evolution, origins, astronomy, paleontology, earth science resources, tropical ecosystems, biodiversity, marine ecology, herpetology, research feedback--it's all there (over 290,000 web pages!).

    Enter some key words to search by:

    Find pages with of these words and return results.

    Document Summaries Search Phonetically Begins With Searching 

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    How might the chemical weathering of the Himalayas change climate?

    Course Syllabus

    So, you're probably wondering how we are going to accomplish the course goals! Well, We'd like to have a balance among current climate topics (modern day climate and weather), the past (as found in the most pertinent literature) and Student Projects (Hot Climate Topics). For the first 2/3's of the course, each week one class period will be devoted to modern climate, the other to modern climate change literature. Then, in the final 1/3 of the course, we will continue with modern climate, but more importantly, we will concentrate on student led discussions and presenations on Research Topics.

    Course Schedules--Topics, Readings & Assignments

    Date
    Week
    Class Topic

    Computer

    (Due Mondays, 11 pm)

    Reflection Articles

    Ponder + Post

    (due Wednesdays, 11 pm)

    Student Projects/Student Discussion

    Jan 13, 15
    1

    Intro

    Water

     

    Post Course Response to Goals and Expectations

    Reflection 1a: Virtual Climate Alert......and Post a Reflection (Due 1/15/04)

    Aquaint yourself with the Midwest Weather Site

    Aquaint yourself with the Radar & Severe Weather Site

     

    Jan 20, 22
    2

    Heat Budget

    Atmospheric Moisture

     

    Assignment #1: Data + Graphs-1 Excel

    Reflections: Making Better Graphs

    (due 1/27)

     

    Reflection 1b: Biology and Climate: Biological Consequences of global warming: is the signal already... and Post a Reflection!

    (Due 1/20)

    Lab Exercise#1 : The Sun Lab--Finding Our Latitude Using Sun Angles
    Due: Week 5--Feb 12

     

     

    Jan 27,29
    3

    Clouds/Dew

    Historical Changes

    Assignment#2: Data and Graphs

    (due 2/24)

    Reflection#2-Emerging Marine Diseases--Climate Links and Anthropogenic Factors Post Response

    (due 1/29)

    Post Project Ideas

    Feb 3,5
    4

    Atmos Stability

    Recent Glaciations

    Images, Word, Powerpoint

    (due 2/10)

    Reflection#3-Was Medieval Warming Global? and.......Post Response

    (due 2/3)

     

    Feb 10, 12
    5

    Precipiatiuon

    Orbital/astronomic effects

    El Nino

    Scales and graphs

    Best fit lines, multiple data sets

    (due 2/16)

    Reflection #4: Ocean Circulation and Climate During the Past 120,000 years and.......Post Response

    Student Presentation#1:El Nino and Climate

    Provide "Research Ideas Feedback" to Peers

    Feb 17, 19
    6

    Air Pressure

    Milankovitch cyclicity

    More scales and graphs

    Time, logs, double-Y

    Reflection#5: The Deglaciation of the Northern Hemisphere and.......Post Response

    Student Presentation#2:Milankovitch/Glacial Cycles

    Feb 24, 26
    7

    Wind

    Species Distributions

    Statistics- intro programs, centrality, dispersion

    Reflection#6: Sea Level Change Through the Last Glacial Cycle and.......Post Response

    Student Presentation#3:Species Distributions

    Post Research Proposal by Friday, 11:59pm

    Mar 2,4
    8

    Fronts

    Snowball Earth

    Statistics-intermediate comparisons, outliers

    Reflection#7: Comings and Goings of Global Glaciation......and.......Post Response

    Student Presentation#4:Snowball Earth

    Post Research Progress Reports

    Mar 9,12
    9
    TBA Statistics-advanced

    Reflection#8: Carbon and Carbonate Metabolism in Coastal Ecosystems and.......Post Response

    Student Presentation#5:Primary Productivity

    Mar 14-21
    Spring Break  

     

     

    Mar 23, 25
    10
    Cyclones/Dr. Mountain-ODP, Sea Level Statistics-power advanced

    Reflection#9: and.......Post Response

    Student Presentation#6:Agriculture

    Post Research Progress Reports

    Mar 30. April 1
    11

    Forecasting

    Deforestation

    TBA

    Reflection#10: The Compounding Effects of Tropical Deforestation and Greenhouse Warming on Climate and.......Post Response

    Student Presentation#7:Deforestation

    April 1,3
    12

    Thunderstorms

    Hurricanes

    Diseases

    TBA

    Reflection#11: and.......Post Response

    Student Presentation#8:Human Disease

    Reflection#11: and.......Post Response

    April 6,8
    13
        Reflection#12: and.......Post Response Student Presentation#9:The History of Antarctic Climate
    April 13,15
    14
    Research Presentations      
    April 20,22
    15
    Research Presentations   Final Research Project Postings Final Research Project Postings
    April 27,29
    16
    Summary      

    REFERENCES

    Text:

    Ruddiman, William F.2001. Earth's Climate: Past and Future

    Readings:


    ALLEY, R. B. & AND TEN OTHERS (1993) Abrupt increase in Greenland snow accumulation at the end of the Younger Dryas event. Nature, 362, 527-529.

    ANDREWS, J. T.,ERLENKEUSER, H.,TEDESCO, K.,AKSU, A. E. & JULL, A. J. T. (1994) Late Quaternary (Stage 2 and 3) meltwater and Heinrich events, Northwest Labrador Sea. Quaternary Research, 41, 26-34.

    BECK, R. A.,BURBANK, D. W.,SERCOMBE, W. J.,OLSON, T. L. & KHAN, A. M. (1995) Organic carbon exhumation and global warming during the early Himalayan collision. Geology, 23, 387-390.

    BLANCHON, P. & SHAW, J. (1995) Reef drowning during the last deglaciation: evidence for catastrophic sea-level rise and ice-sheet collapse. Geology, 23, 4-8.

    BOND, G.,BROECKER, W.,JOHNSEN, S.,MCMANUS, J.,LABEYRIE, L.,JOUZEL, J. & BONANI, G. (1993) Correlations between climate and records from North Atlantic sediments and Greenland ice. Nature, 365, 143-147.

    BOYLE, E. A. (1992) Cadmium and &Mac182;13C paleochemical ocean distributions during the stage 2 glacial maximum. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 20, 245-287.

    CALVERT, S. E. (1987) Oceanogrpahic controls on the accumulation of organic matter in marine sediments. In: Marine Petroleum Source Rocks (Ed. byBrooks, J. and Fleet, A.J.). Geological Society of London Special Publication. 26, pp. 137-153. London.

    CANE, M. A. (1986) El Nino. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 14, 43-70.

    CIAIS, P.,TANS, P. P.,TROLIER, M.,WHITE, J. W. C. & FRANCEY, R. J. (1995) A large northern hemisphere terrestrial CO2 sink indicated by the 13C / 12C ratio of atmospheric CO2. Science, 269, 1098-1102.

    CURRY, W. B. (1988) Changes in the distribution of &Mac182;13C of deep water &Mac183;CO2 between the last glaciation and the Holocene. Paleoceanography, 3, 317-341.

    DANSGAARD, W. & AND TEN OTHERS (1993) Evidence of general instability of past climate from a 250-kyr ice-core record. nature, 364, 218-220.

    FAIRBANKS, R. G. (1989) A 17,000 year glacio-eustatic sea level record: influence of glacial melting rates on the Younger Dryas event and deep ocean circulation. Nature, 342, 637-642.
    ___ (1990) The age and origin of the "Younger Dryas climate event" in Greenland ice cores. Paleoceanography, 5, 937-948.

    FISCHER, A. G. (1986) Climatic rhythms recorded in strata. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 14, 351-376.

    HANSEN, J.,LACIS, A. & PRATHER, M. (1989) Greenhouse effect of chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases. Journal of Geophysical Research, 94, 16417-16422.

    HAY, W. W. (1993) The role of polar deep water formation in global climate change. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 21, 227-254.

    IMBRIE, J.& IMBRIE, K. P. (1979) Ice Ages: solving the mystery. Enslow Publishers, Short Hills, NJ, 224pp.IMBRIE, J.&

    IMBRIE, K. P. (1979) Ice Ages: solving the mystery. Enslow Publishers, Short Hills, NJ, 224pp.

    KELLOGG, W. W. (1991) Response to skeptics of global warming. American Meteorologial Society, Bull., 74, 499-511.

    KERRICK, D. & CALDEIRA, K. (1993) Paleoatmospheric consequences of CO2 released during early Cenozoic regional metamorphism in the Tethyan orogen. Chemical Geology, 108, 201-230.

    KVENVOLDEN, K. A. (1988) Methane hydrate: a major reservoir of carbon in the shallow geosphere? Chemical Geology, 71, 41-51.
    ___ (1993) Gas hydrates: geological perspective and global change. Reviews of Geophysics, 31, 173-187.

    LINDZEN, R. S. (1990) Some coolness concerning global warming. American Meteorological Society, 71, 288-299.

    MOLNAR, P. & ENGLAND, P. (1990) Late Cenozoic uplift of mountain ranges and global climate change: chicken or egg? Nature, 346, 29-34.

    PETERS, R. L. (1988?) Effects of global warming on species and habitats. Endangered Species UPDATE, 5 (7), 1-8.

    PRINN, R. G. & FEGLEY JR., B. (1987) The atmospheres of Venus, Earth and Mars: a critical comparison. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 171-212,

    RAMPINO, M. R.,SELF, S. & STOTHERS, R. B. (1988)

    Volcanic winters. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 16, 73-99.

    RAYMO, M. (1994) The Himalayas, organic carbon burial, and climate in the Miocene. Paleoceanography, 9, 399-404

    RAYMO, M. E. (1994) The initiation of northern hemisphere glaciation. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 22, 353-383.

    ROEMMICH, D. & MCGOWAN, J. (1995) Climatic warming and the decline of zooplankton in the California current. Science, 267, 1324-1326.

    SHACKLETON, N. J. (1987) The carbon isotope record of the Cenozoic: history of organic carbon burial and of oxygen in the ocean and atmosphere. In: Marine Petroleum Source Rocks (Ed. byBrooks, J. and Fleet, A.J.). Geological Society of London Special Publication. 26, pp. 423-434. London.

    SIMKIN, T. (1993) Terrestrial volcanism in space and time. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 21, 427-452.

    WAHLEN, M. (1993) The global methane cycle. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 21, 407-426.

    WEBB III, T. & BARTLEIN, P. J. (1992) Global changes during the last 3 million years: climatic controls and biotic responses. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 23, 141-173.


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