This stingray seems to be flying at Molasses Reef, Key Largo, Florida.
A. What are Strangler Figs?
B. Why are they important/interesting?
C. Define types of relationships
II. The growth process
A. Germination of seeds
- placement in branches of forest canopy
- moisture requirements
B. Transformation from epiphyte to free-standing tree
- root tendrils
- allofusion (including between different species of Ficus)
C. Damage to host trees
- stealing resources
A. Sybiosis with fig wasps
B. How did they coevolve?
C. Studies of wide range of pollination
D. Flowering Synchrony and allofusion
IV. Seed dispersal
A. Species that spread fig seeds
B. Studies of seeds dropped vs. released in excrement
V. Other interactions with the ecosystem
A. Species that the plant feeds, shelters
B. Support for epiphytes
C. Parasitic fig wasps that attack other fig wasps?
Athreya, Vidya R. "Light or presence of host trees: Which is more important for the strangler fig?." Journal of Tropical Ecology, v. 15 issue 5, 1999, p. 589-603.
Thomson, James D.; Dent-Acousta, Sara; Escobar-Paramo, Patricia; Nason, John D. "Within-crown flowering synchrony in strangler figs, and its relationship to allofusion." Biotropica, v. 29 issue 3, 1997, p. 291-297.
Nason, J. D.; Hamrick, J. L. "Reproductive and genetic consequences of forest fragmentation: Two case studies of Neotropical canopy trees." Journal of Heredity, v. 88 issue 4, 1997, p. 264-276.
Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos; Rico-Gray, Victor. "Influence of microclimate at different canopy heights on the germination of Ficus (Urostigma) seeds dispersed by Mexican howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata mexicana)."Interciencia, v. 27 issue 4, 2002, p. 186-190.
Swagel, Eric N.; Bernhard, A. Van H.; Ellmore, George S. "Substrate water potential constraints on germination of the strangler fig Ficus aurea (Moraceae)." American Journal of Botany, v. 84 issue 5, 1997, p. 716-722.
Nason, John D.; Herre, E. Allen; Hamrick, James L. "Paternity analysis of the breeding structure of strangler fig populations: Evidence for substantial long-distance wasp dispersal." Journal of Biogeography, v. 23 issue 4, 1996, p. 501-512.
Laman, Timothy G. "The ecology of strangler fig seedling establishment." Selbyana, v. 16 issue 2, 1995, p. 223-229.
THOMSON J, D; HERRE E, A; HAMRICK J, L; STONE J L. "GENETIC MOSAICS IN STRANGLER FIG TREES IMPLICATIONS FOR TROPICAL CONSERVATION." Science (Washington D C), v. 254 issue 5035, 1991, p. 1214-1216.
PUTZ F, E; HOLBROOK N M. "STRANGLER FIG ROOTING HABITS AND NUTRIENT RELATIONS IN THE LLANOS OF VENEZUELA." American Journal of Botany, v. 76 issue 6, 1989, p. 781-788.
Kricher, John. A Neotropical Companion. Princeton University Press 1997, p. 30, 128-129.
COATES-ESTRADA, R; ESTRADA A. "FRUITING AND FRUGIVORES AT A STRANGLER FIG IN THE TROPICAL RAIN FOREST OF LOS TUXTLAS MEXICO." Journal of Tropical Ecology, v. 2 issue 4, 1986, p. 349-358.
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