Divers chase a sea turtle at the wall break, 12 m deep, San Salvador, Bahamas.
Habitat Destruction, Fragmentation & Degradation:
• Habitat destruction
o Causes of deforestation
o Deforestation problems
• Land usage
o Land use change
Clearing of land for cattle ranching
Clearing of land for agriculture
o Land use
• Habitat fragmentation
o Edge effects
o Microclimatic changes
o Ecological effects
• Habitat degradation and pollution
o Use of pesticides in agriculture
o Air pollution
o Coastal marine pollution
o Soil erosion
Baker, Christopher P. Costa Rica: A Century of Travel Experience in Every
Guide. Washington: National Geographic Society, 2000.
“Costa Rica”. Encarta. CD-ROM.
Forsyth, Adrian, and Ken Miyata. Tropical Nature: Life and Death in the Rain
Forests of Central and South America. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984.
Kricher, John. A Neotropical Companion: An Introduction to the Animals,
Plants, and Ecosystems of the New World Tropics. 2nd Ed. Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 1997.
Molles, Manuel C, Jr. Ecology: Concepts and Applications. 1999. 2nd Ed. New
York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.
Quammen, David. The Song of the Dodo: Island Biogeography in an Age of
Extinctions. New York: Touchstone, 1996.
Rachowiecki, Rob. Costa Rica. 5th ed. Melbourne: Lonely Planet Publications,
Wilson, Edward O. “What is Nature Worth?” Annual Editions: Environment
03/04. Ed. John L. Allen. Guilford: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin, 2003.
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