Protecting the West Indian Manatees (Abstract/Outline/Sources)

This topic submitted by Lee Meiners ( at 9:13 PM on 4/11/04.

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Tropical Field Courses -Western Program-Miami University

Lee Meiners
Tropical Marine Ecology 2004

Topic: Manatees
Title: Protecting the West Indian Manatees


The manatee has been listed as endangered since 1967 and continues to face serious threats from boat collisions and destruction or degradation of habitat caused by widespread development throughout Florida. It is estimated that there are only about 3,200 manatees remaining in Florida's wild waters. In 2001 alone, 81 manatees were killed by collisions with boats. I plan on teaching the class the class about Manatees and discuss their current state of endangerment and possible solutions. The Manatee is the

I. Background

A. General Information
i. Physical Characteristics
ii. Types of Species
iii. Interesting Facts

B. Location
i. Habitat
ii. Migratory Patterns

II. Research

C. Birth Rate / Death Rate
i. Trend in Population
ii. Tracking and Research

E. Threats
i. Over Exploitation
ii. Powerboat Collisions
iii. Coastal Development

F. Conservation Actions
i. Protected Areas
ii. Tourism
iii. Research
iiii. Citizen Involvement

III. Conclusion
i. Afterthoughts
ii. Future Outlook


Ruff and Wilson. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals.
Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1999.

Zeiller, Warren. Introducing the Manatee: Sirens Sing Ever More Softly.
Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1992.

Reynolds and Odell. Manatees and Dugongs: Evolution of Manatees and Dugongs.
New York, Oxford: Facts on File, Inc., 1991.

Dietz, Tim. The Call of the Sires: Manatees and Dugongs.
Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing, 1992.

Ridgway, Sam H. Mammals of the Sea: Biology and Medicine.
Springfield, Illinois: Thomas Books, 1972.

A Seaworld Education Department Resource. Manatees: Longevity and Causes of Death.

Save the Manatee club. [Online Source] Multiple online information sources on manatees.

Endangered: In the the Wild: Oceans - Florida (West Indian) Manatee, edited 7/2/1996.

Save the Endangered Manatee. Compiled by Dee Finney.

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