An octopus tries to hide on a sunny day at the Grotto, San Salvador, Bahamas.
PRELIMINARY OUTLINE (FIRST DRAFT!)
The Ecology of Tropical Epiphytes: Some Adaptations and Interactions to Neotropical Birds
II. Tropical Epiphytes
A. What is an Epiphyte?
B. Vascular Epiphytes
C. Non-vascular Epiphytes
D. Epiphytes of the Tropics, Occurance and Distribution
III. The Epiphyte Community
A. Forest Stratification
B. Nutrient Capture
C. Plant Interactions
IV. Tropical Birds
A. Generalists and Specialists
B. Bird Dependence on Epiphytes
C. Foraging, Cover, and Nest Sites
V. Epiphyte Dependence on Birds
B. Seed Dispersal
A. Threats to the Epiphyte Community
B. Threats to associated Bird species
C. What can be done?
Current Resource List:
Hietz, Peter, 1999. Diversity and Conservation of Epiphytes in a Changing Environment. Conference Presentation, International Conference on Biodiversity and Bioresources: Conservation and Utilization, 23-27 November 1997, Phuket, Thailand. Http://www.iupac.org/symposia/proceedings/phuket97/hietz.html.
Marcy, N. 2004. Avifauna at Cloudbridge. Ian Giddy, http://cloudbridge.org/avifauna.htm
Nadkarni, N. M. and Matelson, T.J. 1989. Bird Use of Epiphyte Resources in Neotropical Trees. The Condor 91:891-907.
Ornelas J.F., Gonzalez C., Jimenez L., Lara C., and Martinez A.J. 2004. Reproductive Ecology of Distylous Palicourea Padifolia (Rubiaceae) in a Tropical Montane Cloud Forest. II. Attracting and Rewarding Mutualistic and Antagonistic Visitors. American Journal of Botany 91(7): 1061-1069.
Sillett, T. S. 1994. Foraging Ecology of Epiphyte-Searching Insectivorous Birds in Costa Rica. The Condor 96: 863-877.
Yumoto, T. 2000. Bird-Pollination of three Durio Species (Bombacaeae) in a Tropical Rainforest in Sarawak, Malaysia. American Journal of Botany 87(8):
Zotz, G. and Hietz, P. 2001. The Physiological Ecology of Vascular Epiphytes: Current Knowledge, Open Questions. Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol 52, No.
364, pp. 2067-2078.
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