A beautiful sunrise over Drake Bay near Corcovado in Costa Rica. See other beautiful phenomena from Costa Rica.
II. How diseases effect and organism
a. life span
d. Metabolism/nutrition needs
h. Tolerance to stress
III. Coral Reef Fragility
IV. Classifying ŮDiseaseÓ
a. Coral BleachingĄA disease?
i. Consider one definition of Ůdisease:Ó ŮDisease are usually characterized (1) as an identifiable group of signs (observed anomalies indicative of disease), and / or (2) a recognized etiologic or causal agent, and / or (3) consistent structural alterations (e.g. developmental disorders, changes in cellular composition or morphology, and tumors)Ó (Dr.Arnfried Antonius).
b. Opportunistic pathogens
i. Weakens coral species/decreases stress resistance
V. Types of coral diseases effecting the Caribbean
a. Abiotic vs. biotic coral diseases
b. Black Band Disease (BBD)
c. Coralline Algal Diseases
d. Coralline Lethal Disease / Syndrome (CLD/S)
e. Coralline Lethal Orange Disease (CLOD)
f. Dark Spot Disease / Syndrome (DSD/S)
g. Red Band Syndrome (RBS)
h. Shut Down Reaction (SDR)
i. Abiotically induced Tissue Bleaching (TBL)
j. Biotically Induced Tissue Bleaching (TBL)
k. Tumors (TUM)
n. White Band Disease (WBD)
o. White Plague Disease (WPL)
p. White Pox Disease (WPX)
q. Yellow Blotch Disease (YBL)
r. Yellow Band Disease (YBD)
VI. How coral diseases spread
a. Other marine species
a. Ex: rapid decline of sea urchins in Caribbean
VIII. Attempts to stop disease spread and drawbacks
a. AspiratorĄsuck the diseased tissue off coral and dispose on land
b. Coat infected area with cement/clay
i. Both are time consuming and expensive
Madl, P. (2005, February 10). The Silent Sentinels...The Demise of Tropical Coral Reefs.
Retrieved May 10, 2007, from University of Salzburg, Dept. of Ecology Web site:
Sprung, J., & Delbeek, J. C. (1997). The Reef Aquarium . Coconut Grove, Florida :
Stafford-Deitsch, J. (1991). Reef: A Safari Through the Coral World . San
Francisco : Sierra Club Books.
Vevers, G. (1971). The Underwater World . New York: St. Martin's Press.
Wells, S., & Hanna, N. (1992). The Greenpeace book of Coral Reefs. New
York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc.
Wood, E. M., Dr. (1983). Corals of the World . United States: T.F.H.
Publications, Inc., Ltd.
For Further Info on this Topic, Check out this WWW Site: http://www.sbg.ac.at/ipk/avstudio/pierofun/reefs/ch4.htm.
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