Draft 2, Birth Order Personality Effects on Social Preferences

This topic submitted by Betsy Auman and Alyssa Moll ( mollam@miamioh.edu ) on 3/11/05. [ Human Nature Team: Betsy Auman and Alyssa Moll-Section: Cummins/Wolfe]

Betsy Auman
Alyssa Moll
Project Proposal March 10, 2005
1A. In this project we wish to expand on previous studies performed on birth order and personalities. Where some have researched connections between birth order and personality, our research project will focus on the links between birth order personality and social relationships. Because social relationships build from personality traits, we wish to address the idea that people who have the same birth position will have closer relationships than people at differing parts of birth order. The types of social relationships we plan to study would be close relationships with friends, dating relationships, and long term spouses. For this we are not just relying on college students and their relationships, we plan to look for similarities through their parents.
Personality development occurs in the early years of one’s life. Experiences in these early stages are said to have permanent affects on one’s brain, and their personality will show later in life how they were affected by these experiences. The family unit is the first way for infants to gain these experiences, usually from the affection of parents. (Bosma & Jackson) If their family is lacking in affection, the child will grow up differently than if they were in a very warm and loving home. Each aspect of one’s life is said to determine a part of their lives; traumatic experiences are the most prominent because they usually lead to negative results. The personality of a person affects their daily life, and the lives of the people they come into contact with, and it is important to understand how a person can get to be the way they are. Many researchers try to figure out what experiences trigger negative responses and if they can be traced back to family.
Family size has continually gotten smaller over the years which mean people generally have fewer siblings to interact with and that has shown to affect their personality. The number of parents in the household, the socioeconomic conditions of the family, where the family is located geographically, are all different aspects which can shape a person’s mind. Obviously, children from a large family that lives on a farm in the middle of Idaho will have different perspectives on things than a person with only one sibling living in Chicago. The parent’s role in raising the children has an impact as well. A growing trend in our society is that there are more homes that only have one parent, who is working many hours to support the family, in the home. The responsibility of raising the younger children is placed on the oldest sibling, in most cases the oldest girl (Dusek 146). The presence of parents affects the development of all the children, especially the oldest who is then not forced into accepting too much responsibility too soon.
A person’s personality is determined by their experiences early in life, the interactions between siblings, and a constant theme in young years, plays a major role in who the person becomes later in life. The specific birth orders have different experiences with their siblings; there are two sides to every story. For example, in a family of two, how the older child reacts and interacts with the younger child will have an affect on the younger child which, depending on the type of interaction, can have positive or negative repercussions on their personality and how they will later interact with other individuals. "…First born children and adults…that they seemed relatively more angry and irritable than their younger siblings. Often their approach to the outside world seemed more hostile and critical than that of the other children in their families" (Forer 31). Oldest children usually feel dethroned by their younger siblings, and will often harbor resentment towards them. This resentment can lead to the oldest being irritated more often by the younger, and will transfer those feelings to people outside the family.
Social relationships are an important component in our lives, as humans are social creatures. The way each individual handles their relationships can be predicted by their birth order personality. People are inclined to see their friends in the same way they can see siblings if they both have similar characteristics. Oldests are inclined to view people in the same way because of minor irritations that are brought upon by their younger siblings and they can shut people out. While middle children crave extra attention from their friends to make up for a lack of attention at home, youngests can want more attention from their friends because they are accustomed to receiving large amounts of it at home. Finding the right combination of birth orders in a group of friends so that everyone gets along would be almost impossible given the stereotypical characteristics. But each person finds their niche with their friends, and those healthy relationships lead to healthier personalities later in life.
Most people have different criteria for romantic interests than they do for normal friends. Birth order personalities play a role in committed relationships that can determine the compatibility of the couple. For example, certain youngest children will have better relationships with people who can give them more attention and affection because that is what they are used to. If there is a direct correlation between the birth orders of married couples, then birth order personalities are influential because of the specific personality traits of each birth order.
When taking specific birth order into consideration, there are certain characteristics which each one is seen to have. Oldests have a continuous need for achievement and will perform better in school than their younger siblings. Oldest children are often thought of as responsible, or at least pressure is put on them to be responsible and follow the rules of the family and society. Oldest children often feel uncomfortable with peers of the same age; they usually feel the most comfortable with people considerably younger or older than themselves. Oldest children can find it difficult to maintain close friendships because they preserve their negative feelings they take towards their younger siblings. The constant urge to be in charge or be the leader can often hurt relationships between oldests, even if it is an unconscious urge to do so. Oldest have a hard time accepting peers as peers, and not like their younger siblings. In long term relationships, the oldest child may take on more responsibility than they can adequately handle (Forer 156).
The ‘middle child syndrome’ is a common term used to describe middle children who feel like they are ignored or pushed aside on a daily basis. Middle children often find other places to be and other people to be with instead of with their family. They see a need to seek out other opportunities to get attention and to not feel ignored. Middle children have a difficult time devoting themselves seriously to one thing, or even to people. There might be many things that a middle child enjoys, but they will not concentrate on just one thing. With friends, they tend to have many they would consider acquaintances, but few who they would really call close friends. (Wilson 96). Middles tend to be ‘thick skinned’, but really are very sensitive; their feelings are hurt easily and take longer than normal to heal. This sensitivity, which can come directly from the family interactions or lack thereof, is brought out with everybody, not just family, and can make the person a more private person who shields themselves from getting hurt. Middle children will often not readily express information about themselves, even to parents. "’Where did you go?’ somebody might ask. ‘Out’ is your [the middle child] reply" (Wilson 99).
Family size affects middle children more than it affects youngests and oldests. A middle child in a family of three is viewed differently than in a family of seven. The small family only contains one middle child, and they will usually follow most characteristics of the stereotypical middle child. A family with multiple middle children will often have fewer stereotypical characteristics because middle children will tend to take on characteristics of youngests and oldests. The second born child in a family of seven is considered another oldest child by the parents, and is expected to act like an oldest to help with the younger siblings. While the sixth born child takes on more characteristics of the youngest sibling, and they are often seen as another "baby" of the family.
There is a common theory that the last-borns are spoiled, rebellious, and will not grow up to be an independent adult, and they will constantly need someone to take care of them and show them affection to keep them satisfied. Youngest children will be more at ease with accepting leadership and authoritative roles because they have become accustomed to getting what they want without coming into direct conflict with authority. However, Forer warns that "If in childhood, they were required to defend themselves a great deal or were placed in the position of controlling other one’s because they were youngest, they may be quite imperious and demanding in adulthood" (135). The relationships youngest children have early in life with friends and other siblings will have affects on their personality later in life. Youngest children try to retain the attitude that they are still the "babies" so they can receive closer attention in their relationships.
Only children are the most closely related to the oldest child in a family. They both know what is like to have a parents attention focused mostly on them. However, once there is a second child in the picture the only child becomes the oldest, and begins to veer off the same track as only children. On the other hand, they relate to the youngest child in that there is no one under them to take care of; they get used to having everyone do things for them. Parental interaction is very influential to only children since all the focus of the parents is only on one child. If the parents are overprotective the child can become fearful and timid later in life because they were very sheltered. Only children are used to an undivided amount of affection from their parents, and can grow up to want that same amount of attention from friends and partners (Cutts 235). This can lead to some egocentricity which can come of as insensitivity towards other people, yet only children can be more self critical than other birth orders. Only children have the need to feel as if they are part of groups. If they do not feel like they are accepted they will feel left out as they did growing up not being able to participate in adult activities with their parents.
The hypothesis for our research is that we will find strong correlation between what birth order a person is and the birth order of their closest friends and/or significant other. We predict that there will be the strongest correlation between oldests, meaning oldests will be friends with other oldests more than any other birth order. The youngest children will have the least amount of correlation due to a more tolerant personality. The middle children will differ between whether it is a large family or a small family. In the large families we predict the older middles will be friends with more oldests and other older middles. The same follows for the younger middles; they will be more likely to have stronger relationships with youngests and other younger middles. We predict that in small families, there will not be as much correlation as middle children can relate certain aspects to both oldests and youngests.
B. One aspect of human nature is the continuing "nature vs. nurture" debate. For ages it has been argued whether or not our personality and therefore behaviors are shaped by predetermined genetics, or unexpected experiences throughout life. We are inquiring into this debate by analyzing whether or not sibling dependent experiences in childhood and adolescence have an impact on relationships later in life, or if the choices made have no statistically significant correlation to birth order. If it is concluded that a noteworthy amount of our subjects have friends or are in intimate relationships with others who are the same family position, then that will provide evidence that nurture plays a role in personality development rather than the individual’s genetic predisposition. However, if we do not discover any statistically significant data, and no link between family order, personality, and social preferences can be found, than that will be support for the nature argument. Many scientists such as Matt Ridley will argue that it is not necessarily nature vs. nurture, but "nature via nurture" where experiences shape the way genes are expressed.
C. We plan to complete research that will analyze the impact of siblings on decisions throughout a lifespan. This study, we believe will contribute evidence to the "nurture" side of the aforementioned debate. We distributed surveys among four residence halls (Mary Lyon, McKee, Peabody, and Scott), which will test key points of the subject’s personality and family situation based on ‘stereotypical’ youngest, middle, and older child characteristics. The data collected from the surveys will be analyzed to find similarities relating to birth order personalities. Our in-depth interviews will look into individual family situations to see specific components that could have affected our subject. After categorizing the data, we hope to be able to support the hypothesis that the "nurture" factor plays a distinct role in long term social choices, that "nature."
D. Our research relates to the Nature of Human Nature course since it deals with human personality and social choices which differ among individuals, and therefore is a malleable part of our make-up. One particular aspect of Human Nature that this study deals with is the ongoing "nature vs. nurture" debate which is widely spread throughout the entirety of the course, and the course readings. Some perspectives of our research that have already been discussed come from Robert Wright’s The Moral Animal, particularly the chapters pertaining to families and friends and how people interact with each other, Matt Ridley’s Nature via Nurture, and Stephen Pinker’s The Blank Slate, which looks specifically at children and how they learn the cultural norms and acceptable behavior and personality. Several arguments found within these texts will serve support our hypothesis while others will offer a dissenting point of view. This allowed us to consider both sides of the issue and formulate our predictions with a clear idea about how our hypothesis fits with other theories. Plus, the additional ideas encouraged us to do enough testing to refute the dissenting information in our process.
Future topics that could possibly relate to our research on birth order and family influencing personality is found in Mary Clark’s In Search of Human Nature, she discusses how experiences shape the brain and touches on past forms of child-rearing. "Whatever happens to us…can permanently shape our brains, at any age" (Clark 192). After further discussion of this text in class, we feel that it will greatly assist our argument of "nurture" instead of "nature." On the other side, Roger Lancaster’s The Trouble with Nature: Sex and Science in the Popular Culture, deals with sexual preferences for intimate relationships.
2A Literature Review:

Asendorpf, Jens B., Wilpers, Susanne. Personality Effects on Social Relationships.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol: 74, Issue: 6, June 1998

This study looked at the way personality influenced social relationships on a college campus through the use of diaries over a period of eighteen months; it determined that while personality influences social choices, relationships don’t necessarily influence personality. It fits well as a specific example of other tests ours relates to because with our study we are looking at the correlation between the specific personality traits brought on by birth order and long term social preferences.

Bank, Stephen, and Michael Kahn. The Sibling Bond. New York: BasicBooks, 1997.
This book considers the lifelong comparison of siblings and how this plays a major role in their complementary personality and identity formation through the many facets of life. Also, it offers support for the theory that individuality gained through birth order affects the future of social preferences for friendships and intimate relationships.

"Birth Order." 7/16/03. Real Families Inc. 2/16/05.
It is common knowledge that none of the generally accepted birth order traits create inadequate individuals; this site clearly outlines both the positive and negative aspects of each birth position, giving us a more comprehensive understanding of the personality differences we are analyzing. Additionally, there is a questionnaire which we are planning on using for our in-depth interviews as an alternate personality analysis which is more grouped to the particular positions than our survey.

Bosma, Harke and Sandy Jackson, Eds. Coping and Self-Concept in Adolescence. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1990.
This source provides a detailed account of the many factors that concern personality evolution allowing us to look beyond birth order; it looks at the development of identity as a construct of relationship development, both with siblings and other social instances. This will help us keep a more analytical perspective towards the reasons our subjects have similar qualities, and not necessarily assume that all peer influences are from their siblings.

Burns, Nick Kristy Antos, Nicky Ziomek, and Lindsey Sabo. "Birth Order, Demographics and Your Personality." JrScience. Chris Myers. 11/9/99. Western College: Miami University. 2/16/05.

This research project states that a variety of influences, both inside and out of the family and specific birth order roles, contribute to individual differences in personality particularly urban and rural settings. By looking at personality differences due to environmental influences is an aspect of development other than the one we are focusing on, therefore, we have a more encompassing idea of important factors.

Cicirelli, Victor. Sibling Relationship across the Life Span. New York: Plenum Press, 1995.
This specific research text looks primarily at the relationship between nine siblings and the general research that has been done on familial interactions; looking at this specific family through their life cycle gives an intense analysis of the full impact sibling relationships play within important life decisions. As a specific case of research on the impact of birth order and major life decisions, this helps us look deeper into the overall social effect sibling relationships play on future relationships.

Cutts, Norma E. and Nicholas Moseley. The Only Child: A Guide for Parents and Only Children of All Ages. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1954.
This book offers a deeper look at the particular position in a family as the only child, and the increased impact of parental actions, compared to oldest children who deal with their siblings along with the parents. Additionally, the book looks deeply into the particulars of intimate relationships, and many extra factors that influence an only child versus children who grow up with siblings.

Dusek, Jerome. Adolescent Development and Behavior. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1987.
As stated by this text, family and other social forces have been proven to shape personality development particularly in children and adolescents and while we agree with that idea, we are looking to find evidence that these forces work in a circle as well, that the character determined during childhood affects the social partiality of an individual. Also provided is a look at the different influences of the nuclear family versus the extended family.

Grose, Michael. "How Birth Order can affect your Child's Behavior and Personality." 2005. Positive Path Network. 2/16/05.
An overview of the similarities and differences between children in families according to their birth order offers the basic facts about our topic. When choosing a partner for life birth order may be a more accurate indicator of compatibility than a horoscope.

Forer, Lucille K. Birth Order and Life Roles. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1969.
By looking at the affects of birth order differences as important in shaping life roles and decisions this text fits as a terrific base for our project, especially since it offers suggestions for adults about what choices might be the best for them overall. This is particularly interesting for us since it discusses the social preferences and how one might be drawn to relationships given their personality and the positive/negative ramifications that might occur due to those attractions.

Head, John. Working with Adolescents: Constructing Identity. New York: The Falmer Press, 1997.
Basic terms of identity for adolescents dealing primarily with employment, social relationships, beliefs, and values can readily provide a great framework for our study of human nature. Along with that, we found several questions which might be helpful in gathering data on ‘the social world of adolescence’ and ‘sexual behaviors and relationships’ during our in-depth interviewing process.

Hetherington, E. Mavis, David Reiss, and Robert Plomin. Separate Social Worlds of Siblings: The Impact of Nonshared Environment on Development. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1994.
The association of personality differences and variations in siblings due to their experiences apart allows us to look at various other factors within the family that affect individual personality evolution besides just sibling interactions. This book provides specific examples with charts about research that has already been performed on topic similar to our, to better understand all the implications of our study.

Hoopes, Janet. Prediction in Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of Adoptive and Nonadoptive Families. New York: Child Welfare League of America, 1982.
By providing a comprehensive view of family interactions and the personality development of the children in traditional and non-traditional families offers a look into a family without genetic similarity and therefore a look at how nurture alone affects the development of character through family sequence. This offers specific cases which shed light on a factor that plays a role in our study that we are not specifically analyzing.

Magoun, F. Magoun. Love and Marriage. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1956.
This book develops the characteristics of individuals which makes mate selection an analytical choice rather than an emotional choice, and how each individual in a relationship needs to have a similar level of emotional maturity to create an independent and productive marriage. Another factor is the general outlook of the two individuals, which are directly affected by birth order personality, need to be similar to have a healthy relationship.

O’Connor, Anne. "Birth Order and Your Child's Personality." Birth Order - its Effect on Personality. 2005. Roller Coaster.
This provides a specific set of personality traits that seem prevalent among people of each birth order and provides insights into the diversity of personality often seen between siblings not only because of other factors such as the quality of parenting and the child's original temperament.

Reiss, David, Jenae Neiderhiser, E. Mavis Hetherington, and Robert Plomin. The Relationship Code: Deciphering Genetic and Social Influences on Adolescent Development. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2000.
Discussing not only the socialization of personality development within siblings but also the genetic similarities shows that the largest reason that the arrangement within a family plays a huge role on the individual development.

Sulloway, Frank. Born to Rebel: Birth Order, Family Dynamics, and Creative Lives. New York: Vintage Books, 1997.
This text looks into the personality differences through birth order and its multifaceted aspects of sibling differentiation; along with describing many different personality developmental factors through history. This book is god. Along with looking at birth order effects, it also mentions the exceptions to the general theory of development and how family dynamics play a role in individual construction.

Toman, Walter. Family Constellation: Its Effects on Personality and Social Behavior. New York: Springer Publishing Company, 1969
This book provides a methodological study on family dynamics and their effect on personality development within children given their birth order and their future social preferences. There are many specific examples and concepts of which pairs of people will be able to form a new family bond successfully.

Wilson, Bradford and George Edington. First Child, Second Child … Your Birth Order Profile. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1981.
This book offers a detailed look at birth order relating to gender differences, and aspect that we are sure plays an important role in personality development, but is not tested within our general survey. Additionally, there are many specific effects of siblings depending on gender and position within the family, which is gone over in great detail and will be helpful for our in-depth interviews.

Zukow, Patricia. Sibling Interactions Across Cultures: Theoretical and Methodological Issues. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1989.
This text looks at the involvement of sibling progression on personality and various world cultures, expanding our ideas of family roles into a global context. It is interesting to look at our specific facet of character development as a general determinate of individuality; it expands our idea of how humans grew to their assumed family roles; we will be able to see what other studies are being performed on our topic for a broader realm of knowledge.

B Before embarking upon a research topic, the general knowledge about the topic provides a framework to start off of and to build from. For the topic of birth order and its affect on personality development there is a large amount of information readily available. This is at least partially because humans are obsessed with how we work and augment our genes through experiences to become unique individuals. Therefore, simply searching the general internet provided a summary of birth order personality traits along with online tests, and intellectual reactions to the discoveries. As a clear analysis, the varying predominate traits are shown in both positive and negative light. The strengths and weaknesses of each family role are explained, rather than just mentioning the stereotypical role. The mindset this puts us in is a plus, given that we are looking at choices made by the individuals, which are the best for their own personality needs. Many research studies have been performed on topics closely related to ours.
A family of nine children, along with their spouses, and parents underwent a study of inter-sibling relations through their lifespan which showed that their birth order played a role in many personal facets of each member’s life. "Here, we examined how each of the nine spouses viewed the siblings. An underlying assumption was that if a spouse regarded a certain sibling negatively, the relationship between the sibling and the spouse’s mate might be weakened" (Cicirelli 99). This study looks at the opposite effects than those we are researching. Instead of how a marriage changes the relationship between siblings, we are looking to see if there is a parallel between personality growth due to sibling succession and mate selection.
Another study that looked at leadership roles in families utilized an interactive interview, to allow the true dynamics of the family to be more salient that just asking them to answer questions honestly. "An approach to understanding families is to study the family in action. Rather than only talking about how they typically behave … the family being studied is encouraged to interact with each other around a specific family task" (Hoopes 64). This type of study shows how much of family interaction is unconscious. It allows us to be aware that even if our subjects are filling out the questionnaire as precisely as they can, it might not be an accurate representation of the true family dynamics.
A third study that helps to put our research into perspective analyzes the effect of sibling relationships on a global scale. Many "cultures make use of, exaggerate, or ignore sibling parity and genetic relatedness in different ways, of course – but rarely are they irrelevant in shaping interaction or cultural beliefs" (Zukow 13). Each culture focuses on different aspects of sibling and family relationships as the most influential in a child’s development. A specific study was performed in Vermont on the spacing between children and the general influence it had upon the amount of interaction they had with their mother and father (Zukow 132). This study on the effect of the spacing between siblings is more specialized than ours, shows one factor of sibling interaction that can account for the personality differences we note in our test subjects.
There is plenty of research proving many factors besides sibling relationships play a role in personality development such as friends, environment (urban and rural), genetic predispositions, and school settings. Many studies have been done on separate social interactions and situations called the nonshared environment with siblings. "The demonstration of nonshared friend influence is difficult. This requires that we show a statistical association between quantity and frequency of mutual friends and outcome traits" (Hetherington 162). The various aspects the affect an individual’s personality cause each person to want different characteristics in friends to share their life with. Since birth sequence has been proven to affect many people’s character development, and personality is a deciding factor in major decisions we are attempting to make a connection between the two. To show that individuals have certain qualities they look for in a friend and mate can help explain why these assumed family roles remain active through the individual’s entire lifespan.
3. Given that a child will be exposed to a wide variety of influences that will enhance their personality development, many approaches can be utilized to determine the origin of particular character traits. The presence of birth defects or other serious health issues in the child or any siblings can lead to a skewed distribution of parental affection and a noticeable variation from normal sibling relationships.
Socioeconomic status and general living conditions determine how many opportunities and/or resources are available for child’s personality development. Since most children deal primarily with their parents and siblings, birth order and child rearing practices play prominent roles in the expansion of a child’s persona. Particularly negative treatment at home can have extremely detrimental repercussions. Besides the family, the main social interactions are typically in a school setting, therefore children who are home schooled would fit more stereotypically into their prescribed family role.
Family sequence character growth can be affected directly through adoption and marriage. By bringing in genetically unrelated siblings later in development the impact of sibling relationships will have less impact on personality.
4. This is a correlational study which will focus on the association between birth order personalities and social choices. One of the main goals of the study is to find similarities between an individual’s personality as affected by their place in the family and who they are more compatible with for friends and in intimate relationships, to do this we will survey Miami University college students in four residence halls (Mary Lyon, McKee, Peabody, and Scott). The questionnaires distributed will have three parts. The first part will be a small white sheet for them to keep explaining the general purpose of the study, and giving the subjects a way to contact us if they have any questions or concerns. The first side of our questionnaire will contain fifteen questions that comprise a general personality survey with questions which have been influenced by previous research assigning individual traits to each birth position. The subject will respond to the statements on a five point scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree with a neutral option. The second side of the survey will be strictly factual. It will address the exact birth position of the subject, the subject’s parents, the most recent boy/girlfriend, two close friends, and the friend they have known the longest. Plus, it will have two questions concerning which personality traits the subject looks for in a school group and in a significant other. These questions will allow us to determine whether our hypothesis about people with similar birth order’s becoming and remaining friends.
The answers from part one will be analyzed and data will be calculated from the numbered scale to see if the subjects fit with their stereotypical personality traits as determined by previous research. The data from part two will be analyzed to see if there is a statistically significant trend, and then compared to see if the subject’s personality corresponds with their social preferences. When analyzing the data we will be able to separate the data into categories through a Microsoft Excel data sheet which will help to determine the conclusion. Once the data is inserted into ANOVA, we will quickly be able to determine the statistical significance of our findings.
We will also be conducting a minimum of five in depth interviews with volunteers whose completed survey looked like it would be interesting to know more about. There will be at least one from each of the youngest, oldest, only child, and two middle children, one from a small family of three children, and one from a larger family. These interviews will give us more information on a wider range of personality topics, and how birth order played a role in the subject’s development.
5A. The most important material we will be using in our research is our survey. We will distribute the survey to almost 200 students living in residence halls - three on Western campus, and one on Main campus. After looking over the completed surveys we will choose some subjects to call back for a more in depth interview which will give us more detailed personality traits, personal goals, and insight into their relationships with friends and family. The survey and general interview questions are located at the back of this proposal. More specific questions will be created after reviewing the surveys of the interviewees.
B. For our research team to work well and efficiently, and get the project done we will continue to meet with each other often. Since we are both excited about our project, is has not been difficult to plan for an hour or so almost every night to go over where we are and what the next step we need to take is. When we discuss the project, we will make sure that we can stay ahead, not be rushed and make errors in calculations or judgments. We will stay on task with the timeline, which has been laid out to have extra time in case problems arise, or any additional work.
C. We will be using a variety of statistical data for the calculations. ANOVA will be utilized, as well as other small calculations of means, medians, graphs, and tables.
D. We worked closely with Chris Wolfe to develop our data sheet on Microsoft Excel. All that we need to do is to input our survey data into the sheet over spring break, and then transfer the cells into ANOVA and formulate our statistics and the overall significance of our data.
E. Time Line:
March 9th - Survey’s completed
March 11th – revised project proposal due
March 12th – 20th – Spring Break – insert data into Excel data sheet
March 21st – E-mail individuals for interviews
- Start using ANOVA to analyze results
March 22nd – 25th – Interviews
Week of April ___th – Project Draft due
April 22nd – Project Report due

This is a study we are conducting for our WCP 262 class, Human Nature. We would appreciate it if you would fill out the following survey. It is purely optional and totally confidential. We will be performing a few in-depth interviews, if you would be willing to possibly participate in one of these please fill out the contact section. Filling out that section will not alter the confidentiality of your responses. We are grateful for your participation in this study. If you have any questions or comments please contact Alyssa (mollam@miamioh.edu), Betsy (aumanbl@miamioh.edu), or Professor Chris Wolfe (Wolfecr@miamioh.edu).

Please circle one:
Gender: Male Female Age: 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 other

Contact information (optional)

First name: __________________________
Email: ______________________________
Phone: ______________________________

For each question please circle the number that corresponds with your own personality traits, SA (strongly agree), A (agree), N (neutral), D (disagree), SD (strongly disagree). Please remember to be as candid as possible.

1. I am typically a studious & conscientious person 1 2 3 4 5

2. I prefer working in groups than alone 1 2 3 4 5

3. I relate better to adults than my peers 1 2 3 4 5

4. In my family, I am considered the family clown 1 2 3 4 5

5. I have frequently changing emotions 1 2 3 4 5

6. I am a perfectionist 1 2 3 4 5

7. I have a good relationship with my parents 1 2 3 4 5

8. I feel pressure from my parents to succeed 1 2 3 4 5

9. I am a skilled negotiator 1 2 3 4 5

10. I am a mediator between my parents & siblings 1 2 3 4 5

11. I am comfortable following other’s directions 1 2 3 4 5

12. I always take full responsibility for my actions 1 2 3 4 5

13. I prefer to be in a leadership role 1 2 3 4 5

14. I feel that I need to find my own 1 2 3 4 5
place in my family

15. I am a very creative person 1 2 3 4 5

(over please) 

Please respond (circle where appropriate) in the most correct manner for you:
This section is about birth order therefore, if you are the youngest of three children you would circle the 3rd child out of 3

I am the:
(1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th) child out of (1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8) children.
My mother is the:
(1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th) child out of (1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8) children.
My father is the:
(1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th) child out of (1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8) children.
My current or most recent boy/girlfriend is the:
(1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th) child out of (1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8) children.
My best friend, is the:
(1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th) child out of (1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8) children.
Another good friend, is the:
(1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th) child out of (1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8) children.
The person I have been friends with the longest, is the:
(1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th) child out of (1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8) children.
If you are picking people to work with on a class project, please rank the order in which these people is the most preferable (1 being highest, 3 being lowest). Someone who:
_____ follows directions
_____ leads the group
_____ negotiates differences
Please rank these characteristics in order of how desirable they are in a significant other?
(1 being highest, 4 being lowest)
_____ self confident
_____ good willed
_____ high achiever
_____ open-minded

Thank you for participating!! 

In-Depth Interview questions and mini-quiz:
Which of the following sets of personality traits fits you best? Just pick the list that has the most items that seems to describe you and your way of operating in life.
A. Perfectionist, reliable, conscientious, list maker, well organized, hard driving, natural leader, critical, serious, scholarly, logical, doesn't like surprises, loves computers
B. Mediator, compromising, diplomatic, avoids conflict, independent, loyal to peers, many friends, a maverick, secretive, unspoiled
C. Manipulative, charming, blames others, attention seeker, tenacious, people person, natural salesperson, precocious, engaging, affectionate, loves surprises
D. Little adult by age seven; very thorough; deliberate; high achiever; self-motivated; fearful; cautious; voracious reader; black and white thinker; uses "very," "extremely," "exactly," a lot; can't bear to fail; has very high expectations for self; more comfortable with people who are older or younger (Real Families Inc)
1. Why did you pick this particular set?
2. What three words would your parents use to describe you?
3. What field are you looking at for your occupation? What appeals to you about it?
4. Where have you met most of your friends? i.e. class, extracurriculars, sports, etc.

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