Sticky Traps: A BugŐs Worst Nightmare

This topic submitted by Michael Frederick, Doug Mazeffa, Amy Heeter, Patrick Boothe, Ashley Gratz-Collier (fredermg@miamioh.edu) at 10:51 PM on 12/8/02. Additions were last made on Wednesday, May 7, 2014. Section: Nicholson

Natural Systems 1 Fall, 2002 -Western Program-Miami University


Amy Heeter
Michael Frederick
Patrick Boothe
Ashley Gratz-Collier
Doug Mazeffa
Lab Report:
Sticky Traps: A BugŐs Worst Nightmare

1. Introduction
A. Our group is going to study the insect population that is present in the bathrooms of Boyd Hall and the stairways of Peabody Hall in Oxford, Ohio. We are going to catalog the types of bugs that we have found in the lab in Boyd and Peabody Halls.
Hypothesis: We propose there will be a higher population of moths and ladybugs than any other species on the sticky traps.
Research Question: What are the characteristics and general observations of the insect populations found on the sticky traps?
Predictions: We predict that will we discover more insects near windows. Also, we believe that we will discover spiders along the upper walls and the corners of the ceilings. We feel that we will find ladybugs and moths in more of abundance rather than other species of insects.
B. We plan to obtain a better understanding of household insects and why these insects are present in Boyd and Peabody Halls. Additionally, we hope to learn better data collecting techniques.
C. This research question is interesting to us because it deals with this group's every day life. We wanted to learn about these insect species present in our bathrooms, and find ways to be more comfortable.

2. Relevance of our Research Question
We found many different articles and online sources that provided information about insect species, and common household insects. So far we have found 12 articles from journals and 3 sources from the internet; these are a few examples of our research:
Literature Review-
Leebens-Mack, Jim, Olle, Pellmyr and Brock,Marcus. "Host Specificity and
the Genetic Structure of Two Yucca Moth Species in a Yucca Hybrid Zone" Evolution, Vol. 52, No. 5. (Oct., 1998), pp. 1376-1382. This article examines how host specialization is an important part of diversification among insects and how they are closely related to their hosts.
Steward, R. C. "Melanism and Selective Predation in three Species of
Moths" Journal of Animal Ecology, Vol. 46, No. 2. (Jun., 1977), pp. 483-496. This article demonstrates the predatory habitats that species of birds have on three different species of moths
Pettersson, M. W. "Pollination by a Guild of Fluctuating Moth Populations:
Option for Unspecialization in Silene Vulgaris" Journal of Ecology, Vol. 79, No. 3. (Sep., 1991), pp. 591-604. This article examines the pollinating efficiency of moths during the four seasons.
Holcomb, Robert W. "Insect Control: Alternatives to the Use of
Conventional Pesticides"Science, New Series, Vol. 168, No. 3930. (Apr. 24, 1970), pp. 456-458. This article provides information regarding the alternatives to pesticides for insect control.
Smith, Roger H. and Borstel, R. C. von. "Genetic Control of Insect
Populations" Science, New Series, Vol. 178, No. 4066. (Dec. 15, 1972), pp. 1164-1174. This article explores genetic methods for the regulation of pest populations.
Townsend, Charles H. T. "Methods of Environment Work for Indicating
Insect-Control Measures" Ecology, Vol. 7, No. 3. (Jul., 1926), pp. 326-337. This article reviews the different factors and solutions for pest population management.
Sherman, Paul W., Alexander, Richard D., Djerassi, Carl, Shih-Coleman,
Christina and Diekman, John. "Insect Control" Science, New Series, Vol. 188, No. 4185. (Apr. 18, 1975), p. 206+208. This is a response to Djerassi, Shih-Coleman, and Diekman's article about insect control. This article emphasizes the method of biological control.
Bailey, Stephanie. "Ladybugs". University of Kentucky College of
Agriculture. Sept. 22, 2002 /fldcrops/ef105.htm>. This website provides general information about the ladybug.
"Moths of Ohio". Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. Sept. 22,
2002. moths/oh/toc.htm>. This website provides a picture collection of moth species that are found in Ohio.
Doherty, John and Hoy, Ronald. "The Auditory Behavior of Crickets: Some
Views of Genetic Coupling, Song Recognition, and Predator Detection" Quarterly Review of Biology, Vol. 60, No. 4. (Dec., 1985), pp. 457-472. This article discusses the auditory means of crickets, such as acoustic signals.
Johnson, Charles W. "Some Common Insects of the Household"
Scientific Monthly, Vol. 27, No. 4. (Oct., 1928), pp. 343-346. This article explains the differences between some common insects found inside the home. Also, the author explains that the usual explanation for household insects is the cleanliness of the home itself or the carelessness of the home owner.
Perry, J. N. and Wall, C. "A Mathematical Model for the Flight of Pea Moth to Pheromone Traps Through a Crop" Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, Vol. 306, No. 1125. (May 10, 1984), pp. 19-48. This article presents a mathematical model that describes the average resultant track of a population of the male pea moth flying through a field crop to a pheromone trap.
Djerassi, Carl, Shih-Coleman, Christina and Diekman, John. "Insect Control of the Future: Operational and Policy Aspects" Science, New Series, Vol. 186, No. 4164. (Nov. 15, 1974), pp. 596-607. This article deals with the conflicts that arise between insect and human populations. It gives information regarding insect control.

3. Materials and Methods
A. Our experimental design is to set sticky traps in selected areas of the Boyd and Peabody Halls, collect and study the insect that were trapped, and study the data that the sticky traps give us. This is statistically sound because we have "hard" data to collect, because insects are present in the bathrooms. We plan to use a diversity index to analyze the distribution of bugs on the sticky traps. We are doing this in order to come up with an accurate statistical distribution of the bugs that exist in these Halls. The diversity index allows us to simply generate a good representation of the bugs that we have found and why we have found the specific bugs that we did. We didnŐt use complex sampling methods because we wanted to keep the experiment simple and the margin of error relatively low.
B. Our design is statistically sound because we are going to model our data collection off the Shannon Weiner Diversity index. Nancy helped design our lab proposal and advise us on our data collection.
C. The most important material that we will be using are the sticky traps that are used for gathering the data. We will also be using microscopes to observe the bugs that get stuck to the sticky traps.
D. We are going to involve the class in our experiment by having them help use with our data collection. We are going to give each lab team a sticky trap to put somewhere in Peabody Hall. We are going to ask them to set the traps out and observe them occasionally. We will them have them report back to us with the number of bugs that they have found and also where they found them. We also will have the teams give us the used sticky traps back so that we can check their observations and display their results.

Data Sheet
Types of Bugs:
Type: Trap 1 Trap 2 Trap 3 Trap 4 Total
1. Ladybug 2 0 0 2 4
2. Cricket 0 0 0 0 0
3.Grasshopper 0 0 0 0 0
4.Fly 1 0 0 0 1
5.Mosquito 0 1 0 1 2
6.Gnats 0 0 1 0 1
7.Dung Beetle 0 0 0 0 0
8.Cockroach 0 0 0 0 0
9.Japenese Beetle 0 0 0 0 0
10.Spider 0 0 0 1 1
11. Ants 0 0 1 0 1
12. Daddy Long Legs 0 0 0 0 0
13. Water Bugs 0 0 0 0 0
14. Mice 0 0 0 0 0

Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index
Species Number Pi=ni/N lnPi (Pi)(lnPi)
Ladybug 4 4/10 = .4 -.91629 -.366516
Fly 1 1/10 = .1 -2.3025 -.23025
Mosquito 2 2/10 = .2 -1.60943 -.32188
Gnats 1 1/10 = .1 -2.3025 -.23023
Spider 1 1/10 = .1 -2.3025 -.23023
Ant 1 1/10 = .1 -2.3025 -.23023
Sum -.490796
Hs .490796
Graph **this did not come through in the simple text format but they are included in our hard copy.

Timeline:
Week 1: Set out the sticky traps and note their locations.
Week 2: Record number and types of bugs. We will then chart our results in a histogram.
Week 3: Record number and types of bugs. We will then chart our results in a histogram. We will also replace the traps at this point.
Week 4: Record number and types of bugs. We will then chart our results in a histogram. We will compare our data to week 2.
Week 5: Record number and types of bugs. We will then chart our results in a histogram. We will then compare our data to week 3. We will also remove the traps at this point.
Week 6: We will compile our results and graph them on Stat-View.
Week 7: Analysis and writing of the report.
Week 8: Writing of the report.
Week 9: Writing of the report.
Week 10: Final report is due.

4. Results
A. We observed that during the winter months, there are fewer bugs in the buildings. In our four traps, we only captured only ten bugs. The bug type we encountered the most often was the ladybug. Also there was no abundance of bugs by the windows.
B. The types of statistics that are most useful for us, are related to what types of bugs live indoors and what months they do so. This would serve us by giving us something to compare our results to. It would also further our understanding of the subject we are studying. Tables would best display our results. A graph would not be effective because our lack of data would make it blank. It would not be a good comparison between types because we only found six out of our fourteen bug types. A table best represents our findings because it more clearly represents our lack of data.
C. We do not have enough data to do statistical analysis.

5. Discussion and Conclusions
A. We feel that our results were caused by the weather. Since bugs are cold-blooded, they do not react well to extreme temperature changes. This causes them to die off in extreme cold in a similar fashion to the dinosaurs. Since we started our experiment in the winter, the bug population was starting to decline. Our data confirms this.
B. Our work fits in because we acquired similar results to some of the other studies we looked at. Our data is similar with what types of bugs are indoors.
C. One suggestion would be to start the project during the summer or fall when there are still bugs roaming the halls. Another suggestion would be to find locations that are not frequently used by humans. An undisturbed room could yield better results.

Other Works Cited
1. www.ducks.ca/ohmic/english/feature/bugs.html. Accessed December 4, 2002.
2. Measurement and Statistical Methods. Natural Systems Reader. Pgs (11-23).
3. Bailey, Stephanie. "Ladybugs". University of Kentucky College of Agriculture. Sept. 22, 2002 /fldcrops/ef105.htm>.
4. Johnson, Charles W. "Some Common Insects of the Household"
Scientific Monthly, Vol. 27, No. 4. (Oct., 1928), pp. 343-346.
5. Sherman, Paul W., Alexander, Richard D., Djerassi, Carl, Shih-Coleman, Christina and Diekman, John. "Insect Control" Science, New Series, Vol. 188, No. 4185. (Apr. 18, 1975), p. 206+208.

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