What Type Of Music Best Stimulates Plant Growth? Draft 1

This topic submitted by Sarah Bingham, Elizabeth Gartenberg, Alsion Kernohan, and Nick Pettit ( gartenep@miamioh.edu ) on 10/10/05. [Section: McCollum]
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Natural Systems 1 Syllabus---Western Program---Miami University


Which Type of Music Best Stimulates Plant Growth?
Sarah Bingham, Elizabeth Gartenberg, Alison Kernohan, and Nick Pettit

Abstract:
We are studying the types and amount of music that helps stimulate the growth of plants. We want to know what kind of music stimulates the growth of plants the most. We will do this by exposing plants to three various types of music. Each grouping of plants will have three plants that we are growing, allowing for some error. There will also be a control that is a plant group that does not listen to music at all. We believe that this is relevant in today’s world especially to gardeners and farmers. If music in fact does help the growth of plants then the production rates can be increased. Also, it may allow for studies regarding the relationship between human brain growth and music to be furthered.
Introduction:

The main purpose of our research is to determine whether or not plant growth is stimulated by music and if so, what type of music stimulates them the most, and how often should the music be played. Our hypothesis is that the lima bean plants will be most stimulated by classical music that is constantly played. The circumference of the stem, length of the leaves, and overall color and appearance will be stronger because of the music stimulation. We have made this inference that classical music causes stimulation because of the regeneration of brain cells that occurs in human brains while classical music is played.
In order to obtain the best results with the lima beans, we researched which conditions would be the best for the lima beans to grow in. According to the Oregon State web site, “lima beans grow best on medium to light, loamy soils that are well drained and well supplied with organic matter” (Lima Beans; Phaeseolus Iunatus, www.oregonstate.edu). Knowing this will help us make sure that the lima beans have optimum conditions to grow in. Because lima beans can develop vigorous, extensive root systems, as the web site also declares, we will be able to judge the difference in root growth from the different scenarios of music and lima beans.
As a group we wanted to perform an experiment involving plants because we wanted to study something that was applicable to real life and the economy. After discussing whether or not studying plants would be achievable, while keeping the issue of time in mind, we decided that perhaps we could study the growth of plants. We decided that studying which type of music will help plant growth was important because this information would be useful knowledge for people who grow plants for a living.
To ensure this experiment would be useful one, we researched various previously performed experiments that had done something similar to what we were going to do. An experiment performed by Yu-Chuan Qin, Won-Chu Lee, Young-Cheol Choi, and Tae-Wan Kim in 2002 relating the growth of plants and music showed that, “Among all three different treatments, the green music exposures also resulted in the highest growth rate and fresh weight” (Biochemical and Physiological Changes in plants as a result of different sonic exposures). This lab also offered specific results to explain why this happens. For example, this experiment showed two graphs that displayed how both green music and 20 kHz ultrasound exposures can promote the vegetables to secrete polyamines, especially spermidine (Biochemical and Physiological changes in plants as a result of different sonic exposures). Also in an experiment performed by Katherine Creath, and Gary E. Schwartz with an objective, “to measure biologic effects of music, noise and healing energy without human preferences or placebo effects using seed germination as an objective biomarker,” it was concluded that, “… sound vibrations as well as biofields both directly affect living biologic systems, and that a seed germination bioassay has the sensitivity to enable detection of effects caused by various applied energetic conditions” (Creath, Schwartz, 113).
As we looked more and more at our lab, multiple questions arose. For instance, instead of looking at the general size of the plants, we decided that we wanted to study the growth of the stem and leaves to create more specific data. We also wanted to look at the overall well being of the plant by judging its color. We also wondered not only what types of music would best stimulate the plant growth, but also how often the music should be played in order to maximize the stimulation of growth.
Farmers and gardeners would find this information valuable because it can greatly affect their product quality and mass. If farmers and gardeners know what type of music, if any, helps plants grow more quickly, stronger, or more lush, it could affect the efficiency of their farming techniques. This could result in a much more successful business for farmers. After running our experiment. We expect to determine whether or not plant growth is stimulated by music. If it is, we will also decipher which type of music stimulates growth the greatest. We expect to figure out how often the music should be played in order to maximize their growth as well.
Background Information:
Online Sources

1. www.madsci.org Why Does Music Affect Plant Growth?
This article explains that a sound is a wave, a pulse wave and hat it is formed by areas of higher and lower pressure in the atmosphere that it travels through. It is not known whether or not plants respond do music during their growth periods. However, it is thought that perhaps their caretakers are affected by the music and are in a better mood when tending to the plants, and therefore the plants that are exposed to the music grow better.
Conner, Benjamin. “Why Does Music Affect Plant Growth?”. www.madsci.org. September 1, 2005.

2. www.oregonstate.edu Lima Beans; Phaseolus Iunatus
This article explains about lima beans, best conditions for growth, soil preference, and caring instructions. It is known that lima beans grow best in warmer environments, primarily because they originated in areas east of the Cascades. They grow best in medium to light soils that are well drained and well supplied with organic water. Lima beans are known for their long, strong roots. When planting them, it is important to keep each plant about 3-4 inches apart, allowing for their famous roots to grow. Lima beans should be watered often, but not with large amounts of water so that the plant is not flooded.
“Lima Beans; Phaeseolus Iunatus”. www.oregonstate.edu . September 24, 2005.

3. www.youth.net Does Music Help Plants Grow?
This article is a lab write up of Elizabeth Marie Chin who did a lab that tested Classical and Country music on plants. After two weeks of running the lab the country music had grown the greatest amount (her ways of assessing the growth of the plant was unclear). However, at the end of her lab the control, plant with no music, did the best, followed by the classical music, and the country music coming in last. The difference in growth success was not specified and she mentioned that she wasn’t consistent with turning her music on and off and equal times, and not as often as she had intended.
Long, Anita. “Does Music Help Plants Grow?” www.youth.net September 34, 2005.

4. www.rexresearch.com French Physicist Creates New Melodies-Plant Songs
This article states that science is now showing that sounds do influence plant growth. Through research is has been discovered that sound impacts plant growth because it is part of the electromagnetic spectrum, which is already known to enhance plant growth. The sounds that most greatly influence plant growth are carefully constructed, so that each note corresponds to an amino acid in the plant. This is done through electromagnetic energy; earning its name of “electromagnetic fertilizer”.
Sternheimer, Joel. “French Physicist Creates New Melodies-Plant Songs”. www.rexresearch.com . September 1, 2005.

5. www.my.webmd.com Music Improves Mood
This article deals with the effects of music on human moods. It says that through the samples run on college students their moods improved when listening to music, any music, and if they were already in a good mood, their good mood increased and stayed longer. Students were more optimistic, joyful, friendly, and relaxed. Although it created a change in mood, the music did not create a change in heart rate.
DeNoon, Daniel. “Music Improves Mood”. www.my.web.md.com .September 29, 2005.
Journal Articles
1. Qin, Yu-Chuan. Lee, Won-Chu. Choi, Young-Cheol. Kim, Tae-Wan. ‘Biological and Physiological Changes in Plants as a Result of Different Sonic exposures.” Ultrasonics, July 2003, Vol. 41 Issue 5, pp 407-12.
The article reviews an experiment done on plants to test the effects of sonic exposure. The exposure benefited the plants greatly, by increasing the amount of sonic waves the plants were exposed to the uptake of oxygen increased as well. This will provide copious back up information for our study.
2. Creath, Katherine, Ph.D. Schwartz, Gary E. Measuring Effects of Music, Noise, and Healing Energy Using a Seed Germination Bioassay. The Journal of Alternative and Complimentary Medicine. Volume 10, November 1, 2004. pp 113-122.
The article contains a total of five experiments done on plants. One of them being the effect of music on okra and zucchini seeds. They determined that there is a direct correlation between music exposure and plant benefit. This is directly related to our experiment and will be extremely helpful when determining the underlying factors of this benefit to the plant from music.
3. Pollock, Bruce M. Imbibition Temperature Sensitivity of Lima Bean Seeds Controlled by Initial Seed Moisture. Plant Physiology. Issue 44, February 19 1969. pp 907-911.
The article on Lima beans expresses the great need to water the plants while still in seed form, and also takes great care of the seed temperature. This is of great importance as we are growing our plants from seeds themselves, and so we will need to take extra care to make sure that moisture and temperature stays consistent.
4. Maquet, A.,Zoro Bi, I., Delvaux, M., Wathelet, B., and Baudoin, J.P.. Genetic Structure of a Lima bean base collection using allozyme markers. Theor Appl Genet. Issue 95. June 3, 1997. pp 980-991.
The lab reviews the genetic structure of the Lima bean by using allozyme markers. The genetic structure of these Lima beans is important background knowledge for this lab as we are using the Lima bean as the only plant in this experiment. The material used in the introduction of this lab is very useful to us as well.
5. Linderman, WC., Glover, CR.. Nitrogen Fixation by Legumes. Cooperative Extension Service, New Mexico State University. pp 1-4.
This guide is extremely important as it provides great knowledge of the benefits of Lima beans. Nitrogen fixation is essential as it is a partnership between a bacterium and the plant. Legumes are vital to the Nitrogen cycle without which we would not be able to survive.
6. Ulrich, Albert and Berry Wade L. Critical Phosphorus Levels for Lima Bean Growth. University of California, Berkeley. Pp 626-632.
This article has a no direct relativity to our experiment but it does contain information that will aid us in reducing variables and provide the most conducive growing habit possible for the Lima bean seeds. The relationship between nutrients and plant growth is defined in this experiment as dependant. If nutrients are present the plant growth will be greater than if there was none.
7. Coghlan, Andy. ďGood vibrations give plants excitations.Ē New Scientist 28 May 1994, Vol. 142 Issue 1927, pp10.
This article is about the assertion that music helps plants grow. It claims that playing an appropriate tune stimulates plants synthesis of its protein and therefore allowing it to grow more. This is applicable to our research because we are basing our hypothesis on the fact that music will positively affect plant growth.
8. Lee, Keun Young; Hur, Tae won; Lee, Won Chu; Yun, Song Joong. ďAnalysis of plants response to music signals. Journal of the Korean Society for Horticultural Science. February 2002, Vol. 43 Issue 1, pp 5-10.
This article explains an experiment that was tested to show the effects of music on plants. The experiment used folk music and green music, and also outlines a way of measuring the effects of the music. This applies to our research in coming up with our methods and drawing our conclusions.
9. Lee, Keun Young; Hur, Tae won; Lee, Won Chu; Yun, Song Joong. Analysis of plants response to frequency spectrum of audio signals. Journal of the Korean Society for Horticultural Science. October 2003, Vol. 44 Issue 5, pp 560-564.
This article is based off of the previous article. It concludes that plants respond better to more “promptly and largely” to higher frequency signals. And therefore it is possible to compose music that would be more effective in stimulating growth in plants. This article helps to determine which genre of music will be more effective in deciding which music genres will show our hypothesis the best.
10. Jennings, Heather D.1,2 ,Ivanov, Plamen Ch.3,4, M. Martins, Allan de5,6, da Silva, P.C.5, Viswanathan, G.M.3,5,7. Physica A. May 2004 Vol. 336 Issue ≤. pp585.
This article is important to our research for details of how music genres are different. This helps our research to determine why a certain genre may positively or negatively influence our data results.
11. Donovan, Priscilla, Organic Gardening. April, 1985. Vol. 32 Issue 4. pp127.
This article helps our research with describing the effects of music on plant growth. It describes the author’s point of view about the growth of the plants.
12. Williams J. L.; Strother, G.; Gazaway, W. S.; Patterson, M. Circular ANR – Cooperative Extension Service, Auburn University. December 1986. Vol. 215. pp 4.
This article helps us in growing our lima beans effectively. Being able to grow our bean plants properly will not skew our results. Then only our variable of genres of music will affect our results.

Research Design:
In order to make this project happen, we are going to begin the experiment soon so that we have enough time to finish every aspect of it. We are going to make there are four rooms in the greenhouse for the four different categories of music and plants, and we are going to put three different seeds in each room in order to increase the likelihood that one of them will grow and that we’ll get an average number, making the data less erroneous. In order to find out whether or not music effects plant growth, we will be using experimenting with country, classical, and rap music. We will also have a control of with no music playing. We will measure the stem circumference, leaf length, and overall color and appearance of the plant. This way, we will get an accurate representation of which plants are actually growing more. Since our measurements will tell us which plants have grown more, they will directly answer our question of how music affects plant growth.

Sampling Design:
Materials:
Four greenhouse rooms
12 lima bean seeds
Dirt
Pots for Plants (12)
Soil
4 Boom boxes
Country music
Classical music
Rap Music
Water

Method:
1) Buy fresh lima bean seeds
2) Plant one seed in each flower pot with dirt
3) Place each of the flower pots in different rooms in the greenhouse
4) Put boom-boxes in three of the rooms, 5 feet away from the plants
5) Put country music in one, classical in another, and rap in the third
6) Close all doors and begin playing music
7) Continue this process for 21 days
8) At the end of 3 days, measure each of the three stem’s circumference, leaf lengths, and the plant’s overall color and appearance.
9) Record the results.
10) Make a chart comparing the results from each flowerpot.

Data Tables:
Rating For Leaves

Color
Bright Green Green w/ some Yellow Yellow w/ some Green Yellow and Some Brown Brown
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0


Spotting
No Spots Few Spots (<15) Some Spots (16<30) Many Spots (31<45) Countless Spots (<46)
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Data Sheets

Control-No Music
Date Time Stem Circumference Leaf Length Color Rating Spot Rating


Classical Music
Continuous Music
Date Time Stem Circumference Leaf Length Color Rating Spot Rating

Intermittent Music
Date Time Stem Circumference Leaf Length Color Rating Spot Rating


Rap Music
Continuous Music
Date Time Stem Circumference Leaf Length Color Rating Spot Rating

Intermittent Music
Date Time Stem Circumference Leaf Length Color Rating Spot Rating


Country Music
Continuous Music
Date Time Stem Circumference Leaf Length Color Rating Spot Rating

Intermittent Music
Date Time Stem Circumference Leaf Length Color Rating Spot Rating

Research Timeline:
Š Week of October 23: Buy seeds, plant them, organize plants and boom boxes in greenhouse
Š Week of October 30: Measure and record data
Š Week of November 6: Measure and record data
Š Week of November 13: Measure and record data
Š Week of November 20: Analyze data and make charts
Š Week of November 27: Finalize conclusion and tie up loose ends
Š Week of December 4: Formalize and finalize graphs and tables

Works Cited

1. Coghlan, Andy. ďGood vibrations give plants excitations.Ē New Scientist 28 May 1994, Vol. 142 Issue 1927, pp10.
2. Conner, Benjamin. “Why Does Music Affect Plant Growth?”. www.madsci.org. September 1,2005.
3. Creath, Katherine, Ph.D. Schwartz, Gary E. Measuring Effects of Music, Noise, and Healing Energy Using a Seed Germination Bioassay. The Journal of Alternative and Complimentary Medicine. Volume 10, November 1, 2004. pp 113-122.
4. DeNoon, Daniel. “Music Improves Mood”. www.my.web.md.com .September 29, 2005.
5. Donovan, Priscilla, Organic Gardening. April, 1985. Vol. 32 Issue 4. pp127.
6. Jennings, Heather D.1,2 ,Ivanov, Plamen Ch.3,4, M. Martins, Allan de5,6, da Silva, P.C.5, Viswanathan, G.M.3,5,7. Physica A. May 2004 Vol. 336 Issue ≤. pp585.
7. Lee, Keun Young; Hur, Tae won; Lee, Won Chu; Yun, Song Joong. Analysis of plants response to frequency spectrum of audio signals. Journal of the Korean Society for Horticultural Science. October 2003, Vol. 44 Issue 5, pp 560-564.
8. Lee, Keun Young; Hur, Tae won; Lee, Won Chu; Yun, Song Joong. ďAnalysis of plants response to music signals. Journal of the Korean Society for Horticultural Science. February 2002, Vol. 43 Issue 1, pp 5-10.
9. “Lima Beans; Phaeseolus Iunatus”. www.oregonstate.edu . September 24, 2005.
10. Linderman, WC., Glover, CR.. Nitrogen Fixation by Legumes. Cooperative Extension Service, New Mexico State University. pp 1-4.
11. Long, Anita. “Does Music Help Plants Grow?” www.youth.net September 34, 2005.
12. Maquet, A.,Zoro Bi, I., Delvaux, M., Wathelet, B., and Baudoin, J.P.. Genetic Structure of a Lima bean base collection using allozyme markers. Theor Appl Genet. Issue 95. June 3, 1997. pp 980-991.
13. Pollock, Bruce M. Imbibition Temperature Sensitivity of Lima Bean Seeds Controlled by Initial Seed Moisture. Plant Physiology. Issue 44, February 19 1969. pp 907-911.
14. Qin, Yu-Chuan. Lee, Won-Chu. Choi, Young-Cheol. Kim, Tae-Wan. ‘Biological and Physiological Changes in Plants as a Result of Different Sonic exposures.” Ultrasonics, July 2003, Vol. 41 Issue 5, pp 407-12.
15. Sternheimer, Joel. “French Physicist Creates New Melodies-Plant Songs”. www.rexresearch.com. September 1, 2005.
16. Ulrich, Albert and Berry Wade L. Critical Phosphorus Levels for Lima Bean Growth. University of California, Berkeley. Pp 626-632.
17. Williams J. L.; Strother, G.; Gazaway, W. S.; Patterson, M. Circular ANR – Cooperative Extension Service, Auburn University. December 1986. Vol. 215. pp 4.

For Further Info on this Topic, Check out this WWW Site: www.madsci.org, www.madsci.org, www.oregonstate.edu,www.youth.net,www.rexresearch.com. . Next Article
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